1. Know your family history.
As with many medical conditions, family history is a key indicator of bone health. Those with a parent or sibling who has or had osteoporosis are more likely to develop it. “So, how’s your bone density, Grandma?” might seem like an awkward question at Thanksgiving dinner, but ask anyway before she passes the gravy.
2. Boost calcium consumption.
When most people think bones, they think calcium. This mineral is essential for the proper development of teeth and bones. (Not to mention it’s a huge helper in proper muscle function, nerve signaling, hormone secretion, and blood pressure.)
But calcium isn’t the end-all, be-all bone loss cure. The key might be to help the body absorb calcium by pairing calcium-rich foods with those high in vitamin D. Some studies on postmenopausal women have shown that simply adding calcium alone to the diet doesn’t have a huge affect on bone density (though follow-up studies have suggested the opposite…) .
Foods that are good sources of calcium include yogurt, cheese, milk, spinach, and collard greens. Not a dairy fan? Check out our list of non-dairy sources of calcium.
3. Don’t forget the vitamin D!
Where there’s calcium, there must be vitamin D: The two work together to help the body absorb the bone-boosting calcium. Boost vitamin D consumption by munching on shrimp, fortified foods like cereal and orange juice, sardines, eggs (in the yolks), and tuna, or opt for a vitamin D supplement. Greatist Expert Eugene Babenko suggests getting your vitamin D (specifically vitamin D3) levels checked at your next doctor’s appointment, and to discuss the use of supplements with your doctor.
The body also produces vitamin D when exposed to the sun — 10 to 15 minutes of exposure three times per week will do. Vitamin D’s importance to bone health has been proven in studies on “seasonal bone loss” — elderly people can lose more bone mass during the winter because of lack of sun exposure . Though these and many other studies on bone loss looked at elderly people specifically, bone health is all about prevention, so younger folks should catch a few rays to stock up on D.
4. Boost bone density with vitamin K.
Vitamin K is mostly known for helping out with blood clotting, but it also helps the body make proteins for healthy bones. However, the exact way vitamin K contributes to bone health is unclear. Two studies on young girls showed that vitamin K had different effects: One showed that vitamin K slowed bone turnover, but it didn’t have any effect on bone mineral density, while the other found the reverse .
Another study specifically compared the effects of vitamins K and D on calcium absorption in rats, and it turns out the two vitamins work well as a team: Vitamin D stimulated calcium absorption in the intestines, while vitamin K reduced the amount of calcium excreted by the body .
Regardless of how vitamin K might help, fill up on it with foods like kale, broccoli, Swiss chard, and spinach.
5. Pump up the potassium.
Potassium isn’t necessarily known for aiding bone health: It’s a mineral that helps nerves and muscles communicate and also helps cells remove waste. But it turns out potassium may neutralize acids that remove calcium from the body.
Studies in both pre- and postmenopausal women have shown that a diet high in potassium can improve bone health . In fact, the study involving premenopausal women showed an 8% difference in bone density between women with high potassium intake and those with low potassium intake .
Load up on potassium by eating foods like sweet potatoes, white potatoes (skin on!), yogurt, and bananas.
6. Make exercise a priority.
Seriously. Regular exercise is key to keep a number of health issues at bay, and bone health is no exception. In fact, living a sedentary lifestyle is considered a risk factor for osteoporosis . One study comparing bone density in college women with various body weights and activity levels found that athletes with low body weight had the highest bone density of any group in the study, showing exercise (and low bodyweight) can have a positive effect on bone density .
What type of exercise is most effective? Weight-bearing exercises like running, walking, jumping rope, skiing, and stair climbing keep bones strongest. Resistance training has also been shown to improve bone health in several studies, so pick up the weights after going for a jog . Bonus for the older readers: Improved strength and balance helps prevent falls (and the associated fractures) in those who already have osteoporosis.
7. Consume less caffeine.
Caffeine does have some health benefits, but unfortunately those benefits aren’t for our bones. Too much of it can interfere with the body’s ability to absorb calcium. One study showed that drinking more than two cups of coffee per day accelerated bone loss in subjects who also didn’t consume enough calcium . Another study (albeit on elderly women) showed that more than 18 ounces of coffee per day can accelerate bone loss by negatively interacting with vitamin D . So enjoy the java, but keep it in moderation and consume enough calcium, too.
8. Cool it on the booze.
…But like caffeine, there’s no need to quit entirely. While heavy alcohol consumption can cause bone loss (because it interferes with vitamin D doing its job), moderate consumption (that’s one drink per day for women, two per day for men) is fine — and recent studies actually show it may help slow bone loss . Bottoms up!
9. Quit smoking.
Here’s yet another reason to lose the cancer sticks: Multiple studies have shown smoking can prevent the body from efficiently absorbing calcium, decreasing bone mass .
10. Don’t be an astronaut.
Not to kill any childhood dreams, but because of those hours and hours of weightlessness and low-calcium diets, astronauts often suffer from space-induced osteoporosis. Space- anything sounds kind of awesome, but space bones definitely aren’t: Astronauts can lose up to one to two percent of their bone mass per month on a mission! For those who simply must visit the moon, there is a possible solution: Two studies have found that vitamin K can help build back astronauts’ lost bone — more than calcium and vitamin D .